Eric Töpfer, Frank Helten (2005): CCTV surveillance in France: Marianne and her Big Brothers
Since the late 1980s France is experiencing a rise of CCTV which puts an increasing number of cities under visual surveillance. In 2005 nearly 300 municipalities were operating an open street CCTV system. Eric Töpfer and Frank Helten trace the development and locate it in the context of state responses to unrest of a disillusioned youth, bourgeoisie revanchism, the responsibilisation of local governments for crime control and conflicts about the governance of privacy.
Published shortly before the riots in the banlieus in November 2005 they conclude that those who are targeted by surveillance in major city centers and excluded from commodified urban space are mostly immigrant youths. [paper in German, published in CILIP / Bürgerrechte & Polizei 2/2005, pp. 48-55]